The Signing Of The Comprehensive Peace Agreement

c. The parties agree to consider the status of other armed groups in the country in order to achieve comprehensive peace and stability in the country and to ensure full inclusion in the transition process. 24.3. That the GDR process in Sudan is led by recognized state institutions and that international partners play only a supporting role for these institutions. The process will continue through cooperation and coordination with local NGOs and the active support of the international community, facilitating and extending material and technical assistance throughout the GDR process and moving from war to peace. The referendum on the secession of South Sudan did not allow the parties to promote national reconciliation and peace. Abyei`s subject remained as it was. Sudan and South Sudan had agreed to have their troops out of the disputed area by the end of September 2011. UN peacekeeping forces have been deployed to the region to maintain peace, as the disputed area has become a focal point between North and South. 1.13 The parties strive to promote and disseminate the culture of peace and confidence-building measures between peoples and their armed forces, which are an integral part of ceasefire agreements and the supply of peace; The agreement on the sharing of assets was one of the six protocols of the CPA. Revenue allocation provisions were an essential feature of the CPA, as the country is heavily dependent on oil revenues. This is especially true for the South, whose budget is 98% financed by oil revenues.

Therefore, disagreement over control of oil fields and revenue distribution is the main threat to peace in Sudan, regardless of the outcome of the referendum. The CPA ordered that 2 per cent of all revenues be shared by oil-producing countries, while the rest would be distributed equitably between the Government of South Sudan on the one hand, and the national government and the states of North Sudan, on the other. This revenue-sharing agreement will end in July 2011 – and probably sooner if the South separates – making a new sharing of oil revenues a priority for all parties. The Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) was signed on 9 January 2005 in Kenya by the National Congress Party (NCP) and the Sudan People`s Movement/Army (SPLM/A). The CPA marked the end of two decades of civil conflict and was the culmination of peace negotiations, supported by the Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD), as well as the United Kingdom, Norway, the United States and Italy. The CPA was a last attempt to find a comprehensive and lasting solution to the conflict that had divided North and South Sudan since its independence from The Egyptian and British dominations in 1956. The first phase of the conflict ended in 1972 with the signing of the Addis Ababa Agreement, negotiated by Ethiopian Emperor Haile Selassie. But in 1983, jafaar Numeiri, then president, violated the terms of the agreement by reducing the prerogatives of the South, imposing Sharia law and resuming the war.

The CPA is based on a collection of documents negotiated and signed over a two-year period. It consists of six documents: the Machakos Protocol of July 2002, the agreement on security arrangements in September 2003; The January 2004 Asset Distribution Agreement; The May 2004 Power-Sharing Protocol; The May 2004 Protocol on Conflict Resolution in South Kordofan and Blue Nile States; and the May 2004 Protocol on Conflict Resolution in the Abyei region. The 250-side agreement was reduced to its essence and created a comprehensive system of equitable sharing of electricity and oil revenues between North and South; In detail, it is a document of enormous complexity, a clear reminder that Sudan is torn apart by several overlapping conflicts, and not just by a division between the Arab North and Islam and South African and Christian or animist, as has often been seen.